The 90% of our Brains we didn’t know we used

We’ve all heard how we supposedly use only 10% of our brains.  I’ve always thought that meant there was some latent higher structure in our brains we just needed to figure out how to tap into.  I really never questioned that assumption until now, and it doesn’t make sense from an evolutionary perspective why the brain would be hyper-developed relative to our present use of it; the reality is even more fascinating.

The excerpts below from an article in this month’s Discover Magazine Entitled “The Dark Matter of the Human Brain” by Carl Zimmer raises the question: If there are in the brain cells which outnumber neurons 10:1 and which code and transmit information via biochemical transmission rather than by electric transmission as in neurons, can it be said that the brain has in reality two information systems at work?  Zimmer uses the analogy of the Astrocytes as an analog network and the Neurons as a digital network.  We know from our experience with the evolution of computers that both analog and digital networks have their own pros and cons.  The question in terms of the Brain is why are there both?  Does one pre-date the other in the evolutionary timeline? Do their functions overlap or are they distinct?

One interesting suggestion mentioned below is that the analog network of Astrocytes may be responsible for “our creative and imaginative existence as human beings.”  As with technology, while the digital experience conveys more information more quickly with far less physical structure, there will always be a quality inherent in analog transmission which digital lacks.  The nature of the digital transition via discrete packets of distinct quanta, however complex, can never match the continuity and depth of analog waves in their richness and tone.  Of course, the drawback to analog as we know from the example of television is that the picture on your analog TV is merely an imperfect representation or approximation of the original source, while a digital picture is an exact replica of the original.

If we take this metaphor one step further can we suppose that the brain utilizes its Astrocytes analog network in such activities such as memory and emotion, where the natures of those activities are by definition representations? Can we then suppose that the digital network of neurons could be responsible for activities in the brain which are more exact and rapid such as computation and reasoning?

Granted this is a blatant oversimplification of an area of brain science which is not yet fully understood, however the presence of these two systems in the brain could go along way in our understanding of the supposed duality of human experience.

The Dark Matter of the Human Brain

Meet the forgotten 90 percent of your brain: glial cells, which outnumber your neurons ten to one. And no one really knows what they do.

By Carl Zimmer

“Astrocytes—named for their star like rays, which reach out in all directions—are the most abundant of all Glial Cells and therefore the most abundant of all the cells in the brain. They are also the most mysterious. A single astrocyte can wrap its rays around more than a million synapses. Astrocytes also fuse to each other, building channels through which molecules can shuttle from cell to cell.   …Astrocytes, like neurons, can react to neurotransmitters—but instead of electricity, the cells produce waves of charged calcium atoms.

…(Astrocytes) have at least some of the requirements for processing information the way neurons do. Alfonso Araque, a neuroscientist at the Cajal Institute in Spain (found) that two different stimulus signals can produce two different patterns of calcium waves (that is, two different responses) in an astrocyte. When they gave astrocytes both signals at once, the waves they produced in the cells was not just the sum of the two patterns. Instead, the astrocytes produced an entirely new pattern in response. That’s what neurons—and computers, for that matter—do.

If astrocytes really do process information, that would be a major addition to the brain’s computing power. After all, there are many more astrocytes in the brain than there are neurons. Perhaps, some scientists have speculated, astrocytes carry out their own computing. Instead of the digital code of voltage spikes that neurons use, astrocytes may act more like an analog network, encoding information in slowly rising and falling waves of calcium. In his new book, The Root of Thought, neuroscientist Andrew Koob suggests that conversations among astrocytes may be responsible for “our creative and imaginative existence as human beings.”

There is something marvelous in the fact that we barely understand what most of the cells in our brains are doing. Beginning in the 1930s, astronomers realized that all the things they could see through their telescopes—the stars, the galaxies, the nebulas—make up just a small fraction of the total mass of the universe. The rest, known as dark matter, still defies their best attempts at explanation. Between our ears, it turns out, each of us carries a personal supply of dark matter as well.”

Astrocytes Change During Postnatal Brain Development

Astrocytes Change During Postnatal Brain Development

‘Massive’ ancient wall uncovered in Jerusalem

According to CNN.com a 3,700 year old wall made of 4 to 5 ton boulders has been found in the City of David in Jerusalem.  The wall is thought to have been built by the Canaanites as a fortification to connect a fortress on top of a nearby hill to a water source which is still in use today.  The Canaanites controlled the eastern shore of the Mediterranean in the 4th millennium B.C.   At this time even the Egyptians were just forming their first cities.  It would be another thousand years before the Egyptians would construct the great pyramid at Giza.

Did the engineering of great structures originate in Cana’an as fortifications and then evolve into the symbolic form of the pyramid?  As with the pyramids, no-one today could use such large material without modern machinery. How’d they do it?

The wall is built of enormous boulders, confounding archaeologists as to how ancient peoples built it.

The wall is built of enormous boulders, confounding archaeologists as to how ancient peoples built it.


The Human Family Tree

Airing August 30th at 9pm on the National Geographic Channel, “The Human Family Tree” traces the work of Spencer Wells, National Geographic, and IBM’s Genographic Project in piecing together the history of human migration through the study of DNA samples from diverse populations alive today:

“The Genographic Project focuses on the Y chromosome in males, which is handed down intact from father to son, and on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which a mother passes to her offspring. Over generations, small, harmless mutations accumulate on these two snippets of DNA; to Wells and other scientists these genetic markers constitute a history book. As ancient human populations migrated out of Africa, splitting off from each other and entering new lands, they accumulated different patterns of markers that reflect that history. Each individual today retains such a pattern.”

As the below map illustrates, all humans alive today descended from a population from East Africa a mere 200,000 years ago.  Considering that the Universe is thought to be 14 billion years old, that the Earth itself is approximately 4.5 billion years old, that mammals are 200 million years old, that the dinosaurs died out 65 million years ago; 200,00 years is a moment in time in the evolution of the Earth.

The races which some people think are so intrinsic to the diversity of humanity only developed as humans migrated to Europe and Asia 50,000 to 20,000 years ago.  The religions which some people believe are so central to their identity are even younger, simply a few thousand years old at most.  Even the nations and states which we wage war against one another for are just barely a few hundred years old in most cases.

Our lives of a few decades upon this Earth we live in earnest hopes for some permanence to endure.  As said in Ecclesiastes “All is vanity.  What profit has a man of all his labor which he takes under the sun?  One generation passes away, and another generation comes, but the Earth abides forever”

But what of this life, of this human race, of this Earth, and of this Universe?  All our vanities, our emotions, our thoughts, and our memories shall pass in time.  My hope is to keep the daily ups and downs in perspective and to enjoy what time we have and be thankful.

From Africa to Astoria by Way of Everywhere

"From Africa to Astoria by Way of Everywhere"


Welcome to the underworld

In between the belief that the world’s myths are pure imagination on the one hand and literal truths describing an other-worldly existence there is this:

Cave Complex Allegedly Found Under Giza Pyramids

Rossella Lorenzi, Discovery News

Aug. 13, 2009 — An enormous system of caves, chambers and tunnels lies hidden beneath the Pyramids of Giza, according to a British explorer who claims to have found the lost underworld of the pharaohs.

Giza Cave

Giza Cave

In FED we trust?

Representative Ron Paul (R- TX) has introduced a bill in congress entitled HR 1207 Federal Reserve Transparency Act.  The FED, according to it’s own website is an institution which is “Independent within the government”.  Created on December 23rd 1913 under the Federal Reserve Act, it functions as a self funding semi-autonomous entity responsibile to report periodically in front of congress.  The FED’s site states “The Federal Reserve’s ultimate accountability is to Congress, which at any time can amend the Federal Reserve Act.

Currently, the Federal Reserve is audited annually by an independent auditor and can be audited by the Government Accountability Office (GAO) under the Federal Banking Agency Audit Act of 1978.  The question is if the FED is created by Act of congress and is subject to independent audit then what is the purpose of the new Federal Reverse Transparency Act, and why has the Act gained such broad support in congress thus far?

The Washington Post ran a story on July 24th which stated that the Federal Reserve Transparency Act would “subject the Fed’s decisions to a full-blown audit by the Government Accountability Office, the investigative arm of Congress.”.  Additionally Bloomberg.com reported that on July 22nd “Bernanke told Paul at a House Financial Services Committee hearing last week that GAO audits, often initiated at the request of members of Congress, could be used as a club against the Fed.”  But if, as we’ve seen, the FED’s own website states that it is already subject to audit by the GAO what is the real issue here?

 

Ron Paul questions Ben Bernanke

Ron Paul questions Ben Bernanke

The principle on which the FED’s independence rests is its mandate to regulate monetary policy free from the influence of politics.  This fact is actually quite strange when we think that the foundation of this nation was the dependence of all institutions on civil society as opposed to the dependence of the government on institutions such as the Church or the Central Banks of Europe.

Now the regulation of the monetary system is something which we seem to take for granted.  It has only been the recent expansion of the FED into areas not traditionally under it’s domain in response to the financial crisis which has cause the backlash behind the Federal Reserve Transparency Act.  The recent attempts to have the FED regulate financial markets, oversee consumer protection, purchase distressed structured assets in order to support the markets, and intervene in the support of businesses from brokerages, investment banks, manufactures, and mortgage lenders have all contributed to the general impression that the government has ceded too much power to an entity which is self described as an “independent entity within the government”.

Prior to this financial crisis it was commonly understood that the dual mandate of the FED was to balance price stability and full employment.  It did this through it’s regulation of short term interest rates and its control over monetary policy.  Basically, the FED would lower or raise interest rates or, in conjunction with the US Treasury, reduce or increase the amount of currency in circulation.  Thereby, in theory, the FED was able to add a layer of control over the economic cycles of boom and bust which all nations and economies are subject to.

It is open for debate as to the effectiveness of the FED in this regard.  A mere 16 years after its creation the FED was unable to (or even contributed to) the Great Depression.  We generally assume that the marvelous expansion of the economy in the 20th century was proof of the effectiveness of the FED.  Certainly the American Economy is many many times larger now at the beginning of the 21st century than it was at the beginning of the 20th.  But, as this financial crisis has made clear, so is the balance sheet of the government many many times larger as well.

We see today that the FED has done everything possible to achieve so called “price stability” at the expense of its other assumed mandate of “full employment”.  There are many who openly question whether it wasn’t the FED’s own policies of artificially low interest rates and artificially cheap credit which caused the current crisis.  In this regard, with years of FED supported asset price growth and a short period of asset price crash the term “price stability” seems incorrect, the more correct term would be “price control” or lack thereof.  With the official unemployment rate at almost 10% and the unofficial unemployment rate projected to be much higher, we hear that such is the necessary sacrifice in order for “the markets to heal”.  As if markets were human beings who bleed and heal and human beings are just workers whose place is analogous to red blood cells rather than individual citizens.

I think this really is at the heart of the debate over the Federal Reserve Transparency Act.  On one side there are those who believe that the economic system is paramount and from it comes the health of the nation, while the other side believes that individual citizens in representative democracy are the ultimate source of the State’s continued existence.

This philosophical debate goes to the core of our ideas of government and the individual and its history is as old as human civilization.  Where does our individual responsibility lie? Is it to us, or our family, or our friends? Is it to our city, or our state, or our nation?  Where does the FED’s ultimate responsibility lie? Is it to itself and its member banks, or the United States government, or to the other central banks of the world?

It remains to be seen whose best interests are being served here; but I can only trust in the knowledge that anytime attempts at transparency are resisted it can only mean one thing… fraud.  Can we afford to trust the same individuals, the same organizations, and the same system to fix the societal ills which they have caused?  Transparency will never be tolerated when it comes to the FED, regardless of what their website claims.  If it were, the American people would know that they are only cogs in the machine, and the owners of capital mean to continue to impose the silent tax upon them… inflation.  Just as the revolutions of representative democracies were wagged on the basis of “no taxation without representation”, so the public knowledge of the silent tax of inflation would demand a response in kind and in measure.

 

Ben Bernanke

Ben Bernanke

Synchronicity: A reading of C.G. Jung’s work on an acausal connecting principle

Row, row, row your boat

Gently down the stream

Merrily, merrily, merrily, merrily

Life is but a dream

As a child, I had deep and profound experiences of Déjà vu to the point where I would purposefully try to act out of step with the sequence I knew was taking place in front of me.  Most often, any attempt to break the spell, to do anything which might stop the unexplained happenings which were affecting me was unsuccessful and even contributed to the effect.  I even went so far as to study C.G. Jung’s work on dream interpretation and to try practice lucid dreaming so that I could take an active role in my dreams and therefore in my waking life.  Performing a series of almost self-hypnotic practices as I lay in my bed just before sleep helped, as did writing my dreams down after awaking.  I reached a point of being able to, for example, remember the experience of controlling flight while in a dream.  I was able to achieve recognition that I could affect events unfolding up until the moment when my mind considered the fact that I was experiencing itself in a dream state.  Dreams seemed to be grouped into patterns and often were repeated nightly.  In my experience they were repeated to the point where I began in my conscious understanding to make sense of and interperate them.  Inexplicable dreams such as repeated and revisited dreams and nightmares were common.

A very significant set of dreams I had was of three separate pyramids; The first surrounded by desolation and desert as if I was witnessing the remains of the past, The second in the midst of vast jungle at the top of which could be seen a panorama of lush nature and beauty, and the third pyramid was made of glass and steel, inside which I wandered aimlessly until I was brought by my father to a room in which the rules of the game were presented to me as a giant chess match with peoples lives as the pieces.

It is in light of my attempts to interperate and affect my dream states when I was younger that I read C. G Jung’s work entitled Synchronicity: An Acausal Connecting Principle.

synchronicity

The book approaches a subject which in past centuries would have been the domain of mysticism, religion, or alchemy and with an eye toward the attempts of modern physics to begin to offer a psychological explanation for events such as precognition, powerful coincidences, “big” dreams, déjà vu, and even prayer.  Personally, my experiences with déjà vu, the non-local power of thought, and the presence of meaningful coincidences has diminished as I have become more and more a part of the social and economic milieu which is adulthood.  Perhaps it is a lack of sleep, perhaps it is the full demands and responsibilities of home and family, perhaps it is just for lack of trying, but I no longer have access to what I once was certain was my own personal connection to the collective psyche.  In modern adult life we seem in most cases to compress or even repress our exposure to events which do not fit the typical day to day understanding of the world.  Our exposure to such experiences is limited into smaller and smaller isolated incidents such as the birth of a child, a wedding, or the death of a loved one.  But being so disconnected to life outside of our conscious minds we tend to find ourselves out of practice when it comes time to recognize the presence of meaning beyond ourselves.  Most people pass off as juvenile the connection to this part of life, until of course we find ourselves faced with the inexplicable.  If we are lucky, we can at some point in our lives come face to face with this experience.  Most people will however either ignore such an opportunity or will take solace in the religion in which they were raised, seeing the experience as a sign of the power of God.  For the most unlucky of us, we go though life altogether unaware of meaning outside of our consciousness, and have our first (and last) experience with it at the moment of our own deaths.  For the majority of people in this situation however, the opportunity to recognize meaning in death is ignored just as it was repeatedly in life.  For those people the future seems uncertain, and for them we should try not to unnecessarily swat mosquitoes.

It’s not however just extraordinary atypical experiences that present meaning to our consciousness.  Jung is most famous for his idea of the “collective unconscious”, a sort of shared network of experience which each individual psyche draws from and contributes to.  In this work on Synchronicity, written in tandem with Wolfgang Pauli, Jung uses the findings of quantum physics and special relativity to provide the backdrop for an attempt to understand both the typical experiences of the psyche and the atypical events which we often dismiss as either coincidence or randomness.

As Jung begins the work he states:

“Modern physics has altered our understanding of the universality of natural law.  Very small levels of physics demonstrate that causality is a relative law, that it is only statistically valid.  We understand that psychologically the experiences of multiple individuals produce a consensus ominum out of the majority of similar observations.”

Each of us shares and communicates information about the world which functions according to a set of laws, at least according to the majority of human experience.  There are of course always those rare experiences which are unique.  According to Jung we use words like “chance” or “coincidence” when describing events which do not fit within the sensible understanding of normal causality.  For Jung, these are “acausal” events we cannot explain as chance and ignore.  It is important that everything that happens is not either A) completely predicable and causal; or B) Completely random and the result of pure chance.  The fact that in general, existence is a mix of the two points to the fact that in the world it is the statistically valid which rules; it is the “predominance of the probable”  which seems to best describe reality.  In this world when we make statements of fact or observations from experience we can at most say that we know the statistically true.  Everything around us points to the dominance of it; nothing is absolute, yet everything isn’t relative.  As Jung says “It is the occurrence of the statistically improbable, rather than the statistically probable occasional randomness which points to the flaw in our predominant understanding of events.”

To well documented occurrences such as improbable sequences of occurrences (events, symbols, numbers, etc..); to the appearance of a series of events which are causally unconnected, but which each express similar meaning to an observer we ascribe the title of “meaningful coincidence”.  To events of this kind we attribute luck, both good and bad, without requiring or seeking out a full causal explanation.  Generally, as long as these events do not exceed the limits of probability we are comfortable with assuming the nature of reality.  However, the very existence of order instead of randomness, of laws instead of chaos is itself however something of an improbability.  Why something instead of nothing?  Why this reality instead of an alternative?  Why is the probable probable and the improbable improbable?  Various explanations throughout history from a “preexisting harmony” to the operation of fate, to the free exercise of matter in a void, to the constant battle of competing wills have all been used to attempt to explain why reality is the way it is.

In an attempt to begin to answer some of these questions Jung states that to the equation of space, time, and causality a fourth principle must be introduced, that of synchronicity, or the “acausal psychically conditioned relativity of space and time”.  In other words the existence of events which are simultaneous in either time across space or in space across time, but without a causal connection can be seen to exhibit a meaningful presence in relation to the psyche.  Like the effect that the observation of subatomic particles has on their position in space according to the principles of quantum physics, so to psychologically a person’s psyche does not just passively observe events unfolding according to a chain of cause and effect.  Instead, the psyche conditions the relativity of time and space.  Experiments with phenomenon such as ESP point to the influence of one’s positive or negative expectations, ones preconceptions or beliefs, and ones level of interest or boredom, in the outcome of events which are not the result of a causal connection and which do not necessarily require a proximity in space or in time in their effect.  Traditionally, the acausal effect of the psyche was reserved for beliefs such as the practice of magic or the power of prayer.

The experiments of JB Rhine with “Extra Sensory Perception” and “New Frontiers of Mind” for Jung provide evidence for the non-local (that is acausal across space and time) nature of the effect of the psyche on the results of the physical world.  Not to be confused with a belief in a sort of energy transfer, synchronicity is posited to be a kind of simultaneity.  In other words, the psyche, what we normally call “our mind”, but which for Jung is both our conscious mind and its unconscious state, is able to have an effect across space and time, not through some sort of energy moving at the speed of light, but though the relativity of space and time itself.  Just as an electron can be said to be in two locations at once across a spectrum of potentiality until such time as it is observed and the wave spectrum of potentiality collapses into a focal point in space; so to does the psyche inhabit an unconscious spectrum of potentiality until such time as the focal point of consciousness observes the unconscious.

“In themselves, space and time consist of nothing, they are hypostatized concepts born of discriminating activity of the conscious mind, and they form the indispensable co-ordinates for describing the behavior of bodies in motion.  They are, therefore, essentially psychic in origin, which is probably the reason that impelled Kant to regard them as a priori categories.  But if space and time are only apparently properties of bodies in motion and are created by the intellectual needs of the observer, then their relativization by the psychic conditions is no longer a matter for astonishment but is brought within the bounds of possibility.  This possibility presents itself when the psyche observes, not external bodies, but itself.” (pg 20)

As Jung suggests, an understanding of the nature of reality according to the findings of quantum physics and special relativity forms the basis on which an understanding of synchronicity is possible.  Synchronicity is not just the occurrence of two events at the same time, but the simultaneous occurrence of two meaningfully but otherwise unrelated events.  Synchronicity is “the simultaneous occurrence of a certain psychic state with one or more external events which appear as meaningful parallels to the momentary subjective state – and in certain cases, vice versa..” (pg 25)  In other words it is a relationship, however subjective, between a psychic state and a corresponding external event.

We can see this in our dreams.  In a case such as lucid dreaming which I mentioned earlier the mind or psyche inhabits a spectrum of possibility such as flight until such time as the conscious mind observes itself dreaming.  But a question arises.  If in dreams the unconscious mind exists potentially across a statistical spectrum of space and time, does it necessarily cease to exist as such when consciousness collapses it into a single local point?  If it is possible to lucid dream is it possible to tap into the unconscious while awake?  Surely dreaming is just imagination right?  Surely all that we dream simply takes place among neurons in our brains right?  What then of experiences of people who dream or see premonitions of events?  What then of the waking experience of intuition where no reason can be given but which compels people to choose previously unknown possibilities?  If you’ve ever had, or been struck by the story of someone close to you who has had one of these experiences, it becomes more and more difficult to dismiss this line of thinking as just naive mysticism.

Jung relates examples from his experience analyzing patient’s dreams and psychic states, cases where material events inexplicably coincide with a patient’s dream imagery or psychic state.  Most often, it seems to Jung, the unconscious mind is able to manifest in situations where a patient has reached a dead end using their conscious mind to understand their situation.  Often the seeming impossibility of coincidence between say a dream of a volcano erupting and the realization that upon waking that there was a volcano eruption half way around the world, is enough to propel the patient past their preconceptions of what is possible and impossible and begin to open their mind to the unconscious.  Interestingly, Jung states that a person’s emotional state has a significant determining factor in the manifestation of the unconscious in our lives

“The observer can easily be influenced by an emotional state which alters space and time by “contraction.”  Every emotional state produces an alteration if consciousness… that is to say there is a certain narrowing of consciousness and a corresponding strengthening of the unconscious which, particularly in the case of strong effects, is noticeable even to the layman.  The tone of the unconscious is heightened, thereby creating a gradient for the unconscious to flow towards the conscious.” (pg 30)

Throughout history instruments such as astrology, or the Tarot, or the I Ching have been used as a material canvas or symbolic language by which the presence of non causal, synchronistic events might occur and be interpreted.  Each method, used for the purposes of creating randomness by which the non-randomness of the acausaly connected can appear, has numbers at their source.  It is Jung’s contention that numbers are formative part of reality.  In his words “numbers were as much found as invented.” (pg 41)  The basis of all divination, all dreams, all religion, all thought could said to be numbers.  The concept of numbers even belies our need to visualize, categorize, and observe reality.  First there was One.  And then two appeared, a splitting of the unity.  Then a third or fourth and so onward into infinity.  This process underlies every material or psychic construction to such a degree that reality, without these categories is by definition, inconceivable.  We have only to witness the still unexplained “miracle” of the first cell division at conception.  Two individuals, an egg and a sperm come together to create one cell, which divides into another, and so on…  Patterns of thought, individuals among species, organic DNA, and inorganic chemical structure all are examples of a simple numeric process repeated in variation to infinity.

Taking this logic and applying it to our study of the psyche we can postulate that if the unconscious exists as a field of statistical probability and consciousness exists as a single focal point it should be possible to express the relationship in terms of numbers. If our psyche and everything that exists have at their source numbers, we can also postulate that that it should be possible that dreams, thoughts, people, animals, objects, planets, galaxies, and “God” express their relationship in terms of numbers.  We see then the possibility that we have within us the means for an intimate connection with all that exists.  These ideas are of course ancient and lay at the root of most human cultures.  Jung, however was one of the first to begin to apply the lessons of modern science to the understanding the psyche, of the world at large, and of our place within it.  From his single focal point on the idea of synchronicity, which Jung advanced at the very end of his career and life, a large horizon of possibility opened up for future decades and centuries of the evolution of our understanding of reality.

Looking back on the experiences of déjà vu in my youth I wish I had learned to incorporate those moments into my life instead of consciously seeking to reject them.  I wonder if  the dreams of the three pyramids weren’t symbols of paths I was to take in the future: my education, my marriage, and my work.  I wonder if the pyramid in the desert wasn’t Egypt to which I traveled when I was in college, I wonder if the pyramid in the jungle wasn’t Coba in the Mayan Riviera in Mexico which I visited on my honeymoon.  Finally I still wonder if the dream of the pyramid of glass and steel wasn’t an archetypal representation of how I would spend hours, days, and years inside man made towers laboring at seemingly abstract and innocuous numbers.

Happiness In Not Sensation

Jiddu Krishnamurti

“Mind can never find happiness.  Happiness is not a thing to be pursued and found, as sensation.  Sensation can be found again and again, for it is ever being lost; but happiness cannot be found.  Remembered happiness is only a sensation, a reaction for or against the present.  What is over is not happiness; the experience of happiness that is over is sensation, for remembrance is the past and the past is sensation.  Happiness is not sensation…

What you know is the past, not the present; and the past is sensation, reaction, memory.  You remember that you were happy; and can the past tell what happiness is?  It can recall but it cannot be.  Recognition is not happiness; to know what it is to be happy  is not happiness. Recognition is the response of memory; and can the mind, the complex of memories, experiences, ever be happy?  The very recognition prevents the experiencing.

When you are aware that you are happy, is there happiness?  When there is happiness, are you aware of it?  Consciousness comes only with conflict, the conflict of remembrance of the more.  Happiness is not the remembrance of the more.  Where there is conflict, happiness is not.  Conflict is where the mind is.  Thought at all levels is the response of memory, and so thought invariably breeds conflict.  Thought is sensation, and sensation is not happiness. Sensations are ever seeking gratifications.  The end is sensation, but happiness is not an end; it cannot be sought out.”